Classful Addressing and Classless Addressing
Classful addressing and classless addressing are techniques for subnetting in network. IPv4 addressing, at its inception, used the concept of classes. This architecture is called classful addressing. Although this scheme is becoming obsolete, we briefly discuss it here to show the rationale behind classless addressing.
In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E. Each class occupies some part of the address space.
We can find the class of an address when given the address in binary notation or dotted-decimal notation. If the address is given in binary notation, the first few bits can immediately tell us the class of the address. If the address is given in decimal-dotted notation, the first byte defines the class. Both methods are shown in Figure below.
Classes and Blocks
One problem with classful addressing is that each class is divided into a fixed number of blocks with each block having a fixed size as shown in Table below
Let us examine the table. Previously, when an organization requested a block of addresses, it was granted one in class A, B, or C. Class A addresses were designed for large organizations with a large number of attached hosts or routers. Class B addresses were designed for midsize organizations with tens of thousands of attached hosts or routers. Class C addresses were designed for small organizations with a small number of attached hosts or routers.
We can see the flaw in this design. A block in class A address is too large for almost any organization. This means most of the addresses in class A were wasted and were not used. A block in class B is also very large, probably too large for many of the organizations that received a class B block. A block in class C is probably too small for many organizations. Class D addresses were designed for multicasting as we will see in a later chapter. Each address in this class is used to define one group of hosts on the Internet. The Internet authorities wrongly predicted a need for 268,435,456 groups. This never happened and many addresses were wasted here too. And lastly, the class E addresses were reserved for future use; only a few were used, resulting in another waste of addresses.
Netid and Hostid
Netid (Subnet ID) and HOSTID (Host ID) is one difference in Classful addressing and classless addressing. In classful addressing, an IP address in class A, B, or C is divided into netid and hostid. These parts are of varying lengths, depending on the class of the address. Figure below shows some netid and hostid bytes. The netid is in color, the hostid is in white. Note that the concept does not apply to classes D and E.
In class A, one byte defines the netid and three bytes define the hostid. In class B, two bytes define the netid and two bytes define the hostid. In class C, three bytes define the netid and one byte defines the hostid.
Subnet mask in Although the length of the netid and hostid (in bits) is predetermined in classful addressing, we can also use a mask (also called the default mask), a 32-bit number made of contiguous Is followed by contiguous as. The masks for classes A, B, and C are shown in Table above. The concept does not apply to classes D and E.
The mask can help us to find the netid and the hostid. For example, the mask for a class A address has eight 1s, which means the first 8 bits of any address in class A define the netid; the next 24 bits define the hostid. The last column of Table above shows the mask in the form In where n can be 8, 16, or 24 in classful addressing. This notation is also called slash notation or Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) notation. The notation is used in classless addressing, which we will discuss later. We introduce it here because it can also be applied to classful addressing. We will show later that classful addressing is a special case of classless addressing.
During the era of classful addressing, subnetting was introduced. If an organization was granted a large block in class A or B, it could divide the addresses into several contiguous groups and assign each group to smaller networks (called subnets) or, in rare cases, share part of the addresses with neighbors. Subnetting increases the number of Is in the mask, as we will see later when we discuss classless addressing.
The time came when most of the class A and class B addresses were depleted; however, there was still a huge demand for midsize blocks. The size of a class C block with a maximum number of 256 addresses did not satisfy the needs of most organizations. Even a midsize organization needed more addresses. One solution was supernetting. In supernetting, an organization can combine several class C blocks to create a larger range of addresses. In other words, several networks are combined to create a supernetwork or a supemet. An organization can apply for a set of class C blocks instead of just one. For example, an organization that needs 1000 addresses can be granted four contiguous class C blocks. The organization can then use these addresses to create one supernetwork. Supernetting decreases the number of Is in the mask. For example, if an organization is given four class C addresses, the mask changes from /24 to /22. We will see that classless addressing eliminated the need for supernetting.
The flaws in classful addressing scheme combined with the fast growth of the Internet led to the near depletion of the available addresses. Yet the number of devices on the Internet is much less than the 232 address space. We have run out of class A and B addresses, and a class C block is too small for most midsize organizations. One solution that has alleviated the problem is the idea of classless addressing.
To overcome address depletion and give more organizations access to the Internet, classless addressing was designed and implemented. In this scheme, there are no classes, but the addresses are still granted in blocks.
In classless addressing, when an entity, small or large, needs to be connected to the Internet, it is granted a block (range) of addresses. The size of the block (the number of addresses) varies based on the nature and size of the entity. For example, a household may be given only two addresses; a large organization may be given thousands of addresses. An ISP, as the Internet service provider, may be given thousands or hundreds of thousands based on the number of customers it may serve.
Restriction To simplify the handling of addresses, the Internet authorities impose three restrictions on classless address blocks:
- The addresses in a block must be contiguous, one after another.
- The number of addresses in a block must be a power of 2 (I, 2, 4, 8, ... ).
- The first address must be evenly divisible by the number of addresses.
Subnet Mask in classless address can determine with some technique. A better way to define a block of addresses is to select any address in the block and the mask. As we discussed before, a mask is a 32-bit number in which the n leftmost bits are Is and the 32 - n rightmost bits are Os. However, in classless addressing the mask for a block can take any value from 0 to 32. It is very convenient to give just the value of n preceded by a slash (CIDR notation).
A very important concept in IP addressing is the network address. When an organization is given a block of addresses, the organization is free to allocate the addresses to the devices that need to be connected to the Internet. The first address in the class, however, is normally (not always) treated as a special address. The first address is called the network address and defines the organization network. It defines the organization itself to the rest of the world. In a later chapter we will see that the first address is the one that is used by routers to direct the message sent to the organization from the outside.
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